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Имя латиницей: Michel Luisa

Пол: женский

Дата рождения: 29.05.1830

Место рождения: Вронкур, Франция

Дата смерти: 10.01.1905 Возраст (74)

Место смерти: Марсель, Франция

Знак зодиака: Близнецы

По восточному: Тигр


Ключевые слова: литература, оппозиционер, писатель, политика, поэт, революционер, феминизм.

Ключевой год: 1848


французская революционерка, писательница. Первоначально учительница сельской школы, с 1856 преподавала в школах Парижа. Посещала революционные кружки, была тесно связана с бланкистами. Участвовала в восстаниях 31 октября 1870 и 22 января 1871 гг. против политики «Правительства национальной обороны». Активная участница Парижской Коммуны 1871 г. После вступления версальских войск в Париж геройски сражалась на баррикадах. После падения Коммуны была арестована и предана военному суду (на котором смело выступала в защиту идей Коммуны). В 1873 г. сослана в Новую Каледонию; в г. Нумеа открыла школу; обучала грамоте детей коренных жителей (канаков). После амнистии 1880 г. вернулась во Францию. Участвовала в рабочем движении. Пропагандировала идеи анархистов, являлась сторонницей П. А. Кропоткина. В 1883 г. была арестована за участие в демонстрации парижских безработных, в 1886 г. амнистирована. В 1890-1895 гг. жила в эмиграции в Лондоне. В последние годы жизни интересовалась русским революционным движением; приветствовала начавшуюся в России революцию. Автор стихотворных произведений, романов, пьес. Ее лирика, сложившаяся под сильным влиянием поэзии В. Гюго, проникнута свободолюбием. Ее романы («Нищета», 1882-1883, в соавторстве с Ж. Гетре, русский перевод 1960; «Презираемые», 1882, в том же соавторстве; «Новый мир», 1888, и др.) продолжали традиции романтизма (Э. Сю, Ж. Санд, В. Гюго).

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  • Большая советская энциклопедия. 3-е издание
  • ru.wikipedia.org
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21.02.2011 Носовский Сергей Павлович

Louise Michelle (1830-1905) France by Flick Ruby Revolution; dear mother who devours to us Giving equality, she takes our broken destinies And beam of them a dawn. Beam freedom It flies our dead beloveds superficially. When the bells of sinister May they touch again, despiértanos To your luminescent clarity. February of 1882. Louise Michelle “The revolution is frightful, but its objective is to win the happiness for the humanity. It has intrepid combatants, fighters without mercy, and it needs them. The Revolution removes to the humanity from the ocean of mud and blood, and the ocean in which thousand of people unknown they serve like festín for sharks, and if the revolution must cause pain to reach its victory, it is necessary. In order to remove drowning from the water, you do not decide if to throw to him by the hair or otherwise in one is more comfortable. ” Louise Michele, Memories As always she is to a great extent by chance, or verbally as the feministas discover to their heroins, as soon as mentioned in “true” the political circles, never mentioned in texts, they remain forgotten and their contribution in the events of history dies with them, leaving us without the registry of our inheritance, inspiration and with the sensation to invent the wheel again. The feministas have spent long time returning to write and redescubriendo the women who history has insulted, profaned and omitted. George Sand shouting one gritona feminsta French with some doubtful ideas nevertheless, was a prolífica fiction writer on the subject of the women and was more popular than Dickens in his day, but as always we studied with assiduity the Hard Times in the Sad House in the Two Cities. Alexandra Kollontai, the only woman implied in the cabinet of Lenin who vió radical the feminista content of his writings published and that was practically exiliada like ambassador in Norway by the expression of its sexuality, is forgotten by the multitude of sexualemente blind socialist male putos, continuing with the great slapdash tradition to which she tried to go. Along with the Spanish women during the 1936 revolution, there are many French women who did not do absolutely anything of some importance in all their incredibly rich history. Louise Michele was well-known and a shining French feminista anarchist, very implied with the Commune of Paris of 1871, by which she was deported to Nueva Caledonia where she participated in 1878 the Kanako rise. During the Commune it was in the Committee of Monitoring, was the secretary of Improvement of the Working Women by her Work and in the central committee of the Union of Women. She wrote with boldness and prolíficamente on the subject of the women and the revolution but qualified professor was not nor by chance an academic theoretician although outside. She said “the privilege of the knowledge is worse than the privilege of the wealth”, also “the prosa and the verse and music disappeared because we so close felt the drama that comes from the street, the true drama, the drama of the humanity”. “The knowledge makes think you; this is a barrier to the action, since it prevents rendirte you to the stranger with pleasure. ” “The first thing that we must change is the relations between sexes…. I admit that the man, also, suffers in this damn society, but no sadness can be compared with the one of the woman. In the street it is the merchandise. In the convents, in where it is hidden as in a tomb, the ignorance ties it, and the rules ascend in their machine as gears and pulverize their heart and its brain. In the world one bends under the mortificación. In their house, their loads squash it. And the men want to maintain it thus. They do not want that she usurps her function or its titles. ” It also noticed this tendency in the movement; 'in the meetings of the group of the Rights of the Women, and in other meetings the advanced men more applauded the equality idea. I noticed - I had seen it before, and I saw later - that the men, their declarations despite, although seemed to help us, were always satisfied to the appearances… I was convinced that we them women simply must take our place without requesting permission for that reason. ““Greeting to all those brave women of the vanguard who were of group in group; the Committee of Monitoring, the society of the Victims of the War, and later Liga de Mujeres. The old world would have to fear the day in which those women finally decide that they have had enough. Those women will not flaquearán. The force takes refuge in them. You are careful of them… You are careful of the women when they get tired of everything what it surrounds them and they rise against the old world. In that day a new world will begin.” Their emphasis and experience were the spontaneous rise that kept it from, like other anarchists, who to request the use of the terror; “the Tiranicidio is practical only when a tyrant has a single head, or at the most a small number of heads. When hidra is one, only one Revolution can kill it. “She really contemplated the murder of certain men and was implied in the attempt of explosion of a statue as well as in the fight after the barricades in the Commune. In one of her judgments that are testament to their humor and anger she admits the approval of murders publicly to stimulate the revolutionary fervor. She rejects to defend itself in the judgment in which she is implied, accepting the responsibility by all his actions that with boldness she admitted, with pride speaking of the objectives of the social revolution and its motivations. In order to capture it after the fall of the Commune the authorities they jailed to its mother until the judgment was given and confronted. “Since it seems that a heart that barks by the freedom has straight only to a small lead ball, I demand my part. If you are not cowardly, matadme. ” She still wrote, when they were jailing it, the authority of the judgment, General Appert “If you do not want to happen through the legal formalities, you already know enough on me to shoot to me. I am ready and the level one of Satory is near. You and all their accomplices know very well that if I leave I live here on I am going to take revenge the martyrs. Alive the Commune! ” Transcriptions of their judgment appear in their memories the Red Virgin published by University of Alabama Press available in Books Oath [of Sydney, Australia]. The Commune who lasted of March to May of 1871 was voted by 300,000 French citizens, 35,000 of which they died defending it and towards June of 1872 the justice system “” had processed to other 32,905 people by its participation, and Louise note that the bravest women did not condemn until death to save the face. The Commune had been declared the 31 of October of 1870 in the Hotel of Ville with the word commune silenced by the authorities in her report of the increasing movement. During the five months before the commune, Paris was under site by the German army and Kropotkin I defend that these citizens” had to be inspired by their own vital resources, and the moral force that they had “, after the understanding of the incompetencia of the government and the complicity of the governments in the reinforcing of its chains of slavery. This animated the principle of a new idea that did not come from a brain, a theory, but of barking of the heart of all the community in the action. “It was done by the same people, who jumped enmedio of the mass spontaneously, and were the idea of the social revolution, vague surely, perhaps unconscious, but anyway the effort to obtain finally, after the fight of many centuries, the true freedom, the true equality for all. ” The commune came simultaneously from a political transition, the schism in the Association the International of TrabajadoRES between the idea of the popular state and the anarchy was spread and again Kropotkin says “to the theory anarchist really needed some clear way and brief of expression, some simple and practical immediate formula, to show clearly its departure point, and to incorporate its conceptions to indicate like was supported by an in fact existing tendency between people. ” The popular character of the parisiense Commune began a new series of revolutions and everything a new element for the contemplation. The Commune of Paris declared the gratuitous education, abolished the obligatory conscription, abolished the necessity and the benefit of prostitution, fixed the wages of all the workers of justice and associate, released to all the prisoners the 18 of March, suspended the payment of the rents by 6 months, destroyed “monuments of the barbarism, symbols of the brute force and of the false glory, affirmations of the militarismo, all negation of the international right”, abolished the professional taxes and political, it cut any possible understanding with the Church and turned all the property of the Iglesa national property, excluded all the religious and preaching symbols of the schools, the guillotine was burned publicly, the factories were turned cooperative societies, abolished the nocturnal work, closed the peonadas factories of, ordered the demolition of the Chapel constructed in expiación of the execution of Luis XVI. The Commune did not execute any hostage, nor a single prisoner, not even to the spies - simply they were arrested. Marx, in their letter to the Association the International of Workers two days before the fall of the Commune (30 of May), and also in the Civil War in France, gives to details celebrating their success us under incredibly difficult circumstances. Speech on the slaughter committed against the comuneros and also gives the reason to the exasperated anarchists with beauties such as “… it was a revolution against the same State, of this supernatural abortion of the society, a reasunción for the town, by the town of its own social life. It was not a revolution to transfer it of a fraction of the dominant class to another one, but a revolution to break this horrible machinery of the own domination of class… All the revolutions thus single perfect the machinery of the State instead of throwing this deadly íncubus… the state, the governmental power centralized and organized usurping to be master instead of crew member of the society… All France would have to organize itself in car-functional and car-governed Communes, the army still on replaced by popular military services, the army of parasites of the finished State, the displaced clerical hierarchy by the teacher of school, the court of the State transformed into communal organs, the suffrage by the national representation a question of nigh raids not to have an all-powerful government but a deliberate expression of organized Communes, the functions of the State reduced to few functions for general national intentions. ” Perhaps in that épcoa Louise Michele wrote “would be better for the town if all we who we directed the fight now fall in battle, so that after the victory they are not left more general staffs. Thus the town could include/understand that when everybody together shares the power, then the power is right and splendid; but without being shared it returns to some crazy people.” “ That will inform into the crimes that the power commits, and the monstrous form into which the power transforms the men? Those crimes can finish for always extirpating the power of the human race. To extend the feeling of mother country to everybody, to extend the well-being to all people…” In its memories affirms that the origins of their revolt were the tortures inflicted to the animals. It was in favor of the revenge of the animals when it wrote down that “the more ferocious he is a man towards the animals, the more is crouched before which they dominate it”. Their ideas of freedom thus, extend all the beings. After returning from Nueva Caledonia, where it had dealed with to save a pair of times, it returned to Paris in a new political scene. The town said now “is chained to make him think that republic is free” under the new proclaimed car. It almost left his political activities after being received by thousands of people. It embarked in tour of speeches by all France, Belgium and England. After his implication in a manifestation that closed waving the black flag by Paris, it was sentenced to 6 years of confinement in solitaire. It was pardoned after the funeral of his mother, who was incredibly enormous, uniting to many revolutionary groups. Its continuous work untiringly until its death in 1905, traveling collecting bottoms and endorsing revolutionary groups. It was arrested in numerous occasions and threatened manicomio, that was one of its only fears, so it went to England. “When we are defeated, the last obstacle to be useful in the revolutionary fight is only eliminated. When we are beaten, we are free. When no longer we underwent more reason why it happens to us, we are invincible”. “When the hour arrives in which the ferocious and stupid governments are displaced, it will not be a boulevard the one that shakes before the passages of a multitude. It will be the whole Earth the one that shakes under the March of the Human Race. Meanwhile, the more wide it is the blood river that lowers of patibulo in which our people are assassinated, the more populated the prisons, greater the poverty, the more tiránicos the governments, the more quickly the hour will arrive and the more numerous the combatants will be. Whichever people iracunda, young people, will have with us when black the red standards and wave in the wind of the rage… “. “When the revolution arrives, you and I and all the humanity will be transformed. Everything will change and better times will have the joys that the today people cannot include/understand the feelings by the art and the freedom surely will be made greater, and the harvest of that development will be wonderful. Beyond this last time a day will come in which the humanity, frees and conscious of his power no longer it will torture man or beast. The hope is worth all the suffering that we felt when we passed the horrors of the life.”
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